Renal artery stenosis: prevalence and associated risk factors in patients undergoing routine cardiac catheterization.
The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of angiographically significant renal artery stenosis in a patient population referred for diagnostic cardiac catheterization and to develop a model that predicts the highest-risk subset of patients who have significant renal artery narrowing. A prospective validation cohort study was undertaken in a referral-based university hospital. After left ventriculography, abdominal aortography was performed to screen for the presence of renal artery disease. A convenience sample of 1,302 of 1,651 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic cardiac catheterization were enrolled in the study. Of the 1,302 abdominal aortograms performed, 1,235 (95%) were deemed of adequate quality for the evaluation of renal artery anatomy. Renal artery disease was identified in 30% of the patients. Insignificant renal artery stenosis was found in 187 (15%) and significant (greater than or equal to 50% diameter narrowing) stenosis was found in 188 (15%). Significant unilateral disease was present in 11%, and bilateral disease was present in 4%. By univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis, the association of both clinically and catheterization-derived variables with renal artery disease was assessed. Multivariable predictors included age, severity of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, female gender, and peripheral vascular disease. Hypertension was not an associated variable. These data reveal the previously undetected high prevalence of renal artery disease in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization and provide clinical and angiographic features that assist in predicting its presence.
Harding, MB; Smith, LR; Himmelstein, SI; Harrison, K; Phillips, HR; Schwab, SJ; Hermiller, JB; Davidson, CJ; Bashore, TM
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