The anomalous pKa of Tyr-9 in glutathione S-transferase A1-1 catalyzes product release.
The pKa of the catalytic Tyr-9 in glutathione S-transferase (GST) A1-1 is lowered from 10.3 to approximately 8.1 in the apoenzyme and approximately 9.0 with a GSH conjugate bound at the active site. However, a clear functional role for the unusual Tyr-9 pKa has not been elucidated. GSTA1-1 also includes a dynamic C terminus that undergoes a ligand-dependent disorder-to-order transition. Previous studies suggest a functional link between Tyr-9 ionization and C-terminal dynamics. Here we directly probe the role of Tyr-9 ionization in ligand binding and C-terminal conformation. An engineered mutant of rGSTA1-1, W21F/F222W, which contains a single Trp at the C terminus, was used as a fluorescent reporter of pH-dependent C-terminal dynamics. This mutant exhibited a pH-dependent change in Trp-222 emission properties consistent with changes in C-terminal solvation or conformation. The apparent pKa values for the conformational transition were 7.9 +/- 0.1 and 9.3 +/- 0.1 for the apoenzyme and ligand-bound enzyme, respectively, in excellent agreement with the pKa for Tyr-9 in these states. The Y9F/W21F/F222W mutant, however, exhibited no such pH-dependent changes. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy studies revealed a ligand-dependent, Tyr-9-dependent, change in the order parameter of Trp-222. However, no pH dependence was observed. In equilibrium and pre-steady-state ligand binding studies, product conjugate had a decreased equilibrium binding affinity (KD), concomitant with increased binding and dissociation rates, at higher pH values. Furthermore, the recovered pKa values for the pH-dependent microscopic rate constants ranged from 7.7 to 8.4, also in agreement with the pKa of Tyr-9. In contrast, the Y9F/W21F/F222W mutant had no pH-dependent transition in KD or rate constants for ligand binding or dissociation. The combined results indicate that the macroscopic populations of "open" and "closed" states of the C terminus are not determined solely by the ionization state of Tyr-9. However, the rates of transition between these states are faster for the ionized Tyr-9. The ionized Tyr-9 states provide a parallel pathway for product dissociation, which is kinetically and thermodynamically favored. In silico kinetic models further support the functional role for the parallel dissociation pathway provided by ionized Tyr-9.
Ibarra, CA; Chowdhury, P; Petrich, JW; Atkins, WM
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