Multiple conflict-driven control mechanisms in the human brain.
Conflict between competing neural representations is thought to serve as an internal signal for the recruitment of 'cognitive control', which resolves conflict by biasing information processing in line with current task demands. Because conflict can occur at different levels of stimulus and response representations, several recent investigations have examined whether conflict-driven cognitive control is domain-general or domain-specific, that is, whether control recruited by one type of conflict affects the resolution of another, but these studies have produced contrary conclusions. I argue here that a critical reading of this literature indicates that the effects of conflict-driven control are domain-specific and are probably mediated by multiple, independent conflict-control loops that can operate in parallel.
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