Beryllium fluoride-induced cell proliferation: a process requiring P21(ras)-dependent activated signal transduction and NF-kappaB-dependent gene regulation.
We studied the effect of beryllium fluoride on murine peritoneal macrophages and determined its effects on signal transduction and genetic regulation. At low concentration (1-5 nM), BeF(2) caused an approximate twofold increase in [(3)H]thymidine uptake and cell number, but above 5 nM, it showed cytotoxic effects. BeF(2) increased cellular inositol (1,4,5)trisphosphate (IP(3)) and [Ca(2)(+)](i) about twofold. The rise in [Ca(2)(+)](i) occurred consequent to release from IP(3)-sensitive Ca(2)(+) stores and from influx, mainly via L-type channels. A significant increase in the levels of MEK1, ERK1, p38 MAPK, and JNK phosphorylation was observed in BeF(2)-exposed macrophages. The levels of NF-kappaB and CREB transcription factors and the proto-oncogenes c-fos and c-myc were also elevated significantly. Intracellular Ca(2)(+) chelation blocked the effect of BeF(2). We conclude that BeF(2) at low concentration exerts its mitogenic effects in peritoneal macrophages by elevating [Ca(2)(+)](i), which triggers the activation of p21(ras)-dependent MAPK signaling cascades.
Misra, UK; Gawdi, G; Pizzo, SV
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