Cadmium-induced DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in macrophages: the role of intracellular calcium and signal transduction mechanisms.
Cd(2+) exposure increases the risk of cancer in humans and animals. In this report, we have studied the effect of Cd(2+) on signal transduction and Ca(2+) mobilization in murine macrophages. At micromolar concentrations, Cd(2+) significantly increased cell division as judged by [3H]thymidine uptake and cell counts. Cd(2+)-treated cells continued to proliferate even after more than 4 weeks in culture. Cd(2+) (1 microM) treatment induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+), [Ca(2+)](i), which was transitory and/or oscillatory. The sources of this Ca(2+) included both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-sensitive and -insensitive stores. Macrophage treatment with 1-(6-((17beta-3-methoxyestra-1,2,5(10)-triene-17-yl)amino)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione (U73122), an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC), decreased Cd(2+)-induced formation of IP(3) in a concentration-dependent manner (K(d) about 2 microM). This caused a concomitant, partial decrease in the effect of Cd(2+) on [Ca(2+)](i). Cd(2+) itself crosses the macrophage membrane in part via L-type Ca(2+) channels, but it also interacts with a cell surface membrane protein(s) coupled to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. Use of selective inhibitors of signal transduction and the quantitation of the levels of phosphorylated MAPK/ERK-activating kinase-1 (MEK1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK1), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) suggests that the effects of Cd(2+) are mediated by the p21(ras)-dependent MAPK, but not the phosphoinositide 3 (PI 3)-kinase signalling pathway. The effect of activating these pathways includes increased availability of the transcription factor NFkappaB as well as activation of the early genes c-fos and c-myc.
Misra, UK; Gawdi, G; Akabani, G; Pizzo, SV
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