Y+ and y+ L arginine transporters in neuronal cells expressing tyrosine hydroxylase.
Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that serves as sole substrate for enzymes involved in diverse cell processes including redox balance via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cell proliferation via arginase. Neurons that express nNOS require intracellular arginine to generate nitric oxide (NO). Using a TH+ neuronal cell line (CAD cells), we show that neuronal NO production is largely dependent on extracellular arginine. Although a small intracellular pool exists in CAD cells, the lack of mRNA for argininosuccinate synthase (AS), a rate limiting enzyme for arginine recycling, suggests that intracellular pools are not re-supplied by this mechanism in this sub-class of neurons. Rather, arginine is taken up from the extracellular media by two primary transport systems, the y+ and the y+ L systems. The expression of CAT1, CAT3, y+ LAT1 and y+ LAT2 mRNAs supports the presence of each system. CAD cell arginine transport is depressed by increased extracellular K+ levels and demonstrates that variations in membrane potential control neuronal arginine uptake. Short term exposure to the oxidizing agents, rotenone and Angeli's salt, but not FeSO4, increases arginine transport. The regulation of arginine uptake by physiological factors suggests that arginine supply adapts in a moment-to-moment fashion to the changing needs of the neuron.
Bae, SY; Xu, Q; Hutchinson, D; Colton, CA
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