Enhanced production of superoxide anion by microglia from trisomy 16 mice.
Disruption of normal oxygen radical metabolism in the CNS may contribute to the neuropathological changes associated with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) and its mouse counterpart, the trisomy 16 (Ts16) mouse. One potent source of oxyradicals is the CNS-specific macrophage, the microglial cell. We prepared primary glial cultures from the cerebral cortices of Ts16 and normal littermate mice taken at day 15 of gestation. Microglia were isolated from confluent cultures after 14 days in vitro and assayed for superoxide anion production using a cytochrome C reduction assay. Stimulation by either opsonized zymosan (OPZ) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), produced significantly higher levels (2.8-20 fold) of superoxide per mg protein in Ts16 microglial cultures. Resting, i.e. unstimulated secretion, was not significantly different from littermate controls. Astrocyte enriched cultures, stimulated by OPZ, exhibited low levels of superoxide production which was higher in Ts16 mice than normal littermates. Microglial enriched cultures from rat neonatal cerebral cortices were exposed for 24 h to medium from the Ts16 glial cultures. Superoxide production in the Ts16 media treated rat microglia was significantly higher than in those treated with littermate conditioned media.
Colton, CA; Yao, JB; Gilbert, D; Oster-Granite, ML
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