Hypoxia modulates nitric oxide-induced regulation of NMDA receptor currents and neuronal cell death.
Nitric oxide (NO) released from a new chemical class of donors enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) channel activity. Using whole cell and single-channel patch-clamp techniques, we have shown that (Z)-1-[N-(3-ammoniopropyl)-N-(n-propyl)amino]-NO (PAPA-NO) and diethylamine NO, commonly termed NONOates, potentiate the glutamate-mediated response of recombinant rat NMDA receptors (NR1/NR2A) expressed in HEK-293 cells. The overall effect is an increase in both peak and steady-state whole cell currents induced by glutamate. Single-channel studies demonstrate a significant increase in open probability but no change in the mean single-channel open time or mean channel conductance. Reduction in oxygen levels increased and prolonged the PAPA-NO-induced change in both peak and steady-state glutamate currents in transfected HEK cells. PAPA-NO also enhanced cell death in primary cultures of rodent cortical neurons deprived of oxygen and glucose. This potentiation of neuronal injury was blocked by MK-801, indicating a critical involvement of NMDA receptor activation. The NO-induced increase in NMDA channel activity as well as NMDA receptor-mediated cell death provide firm evidence that NO modulates the NMDA channel in a manner consistent with both a physiological role under normoxic conditions and a pathophysiological role under hypoxic conditions.
Gbadegesin, M; Vicini, S; Hewett, SJ; Wink, DA; Espey, M; Pluta, RM; Colton, CA
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