Phase I trial of etoposide, carboplatin, and GM-CSF in extensive small-cell lung cancer: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study (CALGB 8832).
The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of etoposide and carboplatin without growth factor support was previously defined by Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) as 200 and 125 mg/m2/day x 3, respectively, given every 28 days to previously untreated patients who have extensive, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). Myelosuppression was dose-limiting. The purpose of this phase I trial was to determine if granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) support allows the dosage of the combination of etoposide and carboplatin to be increased above the previously determined MTD. In this CALGB study of 44 evaluable patients with performance status 0-2, cohorts were treated with etoposide and carboplatin given intravenously on days 1-3 followed by GM-CSF (molgramostim) given subcutaneously on days 4-18. Four dose levels of bacteria-derived recombinant GM-CSF (5, 10, 20 microg/kg/day and 5 microg/kg every 12 h), three dose levels of etoposide (200, 250, and 300 mg/m2/day x 3), and two dose levels of carboplatin (125 and 150 mg/m2/day x 3) were evaluated. There was no chemotherapy dose escalation in individual patients. With 5 microg/kg/d GM-CSF, the first etoposide and carboplatin cycle of 300 and 150 mg/m2/day x 3, respectively, could be administered with acceptable toxicity. However, GM-CSF did not allow repeated administration of this dose-escalated regimen every 21 days, since delayed platelet and/or neutrophil recovery was dose limiting in later cycles. These results demonstrate that GM-CSF alone has limited capability to support the repeated administration of high doses of etoposide and carboplatin. CALGB currently is testing the ability of interleukin (IL)-6 given with GM-CSF to ameliorate the cumulative myelosuppression of this intense regimen.
Luikart, SD; Herndon, JE; Hollis, DR; MacDonald, M; Maurer, LH; Crawford, J; Clamon, GH; Wright, J; Perry, MC; Ozer, H; Green, MR
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