Immunohistochemical detection of occult lymph node metastases in non-small cell lung cancer: anatomical pathology results from Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9761.
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to study the detection of occult metastases (OM) in regional lymph nodes using immunohistochemical stain for cytokeratin, and for this study we targeted clinical stage I patients with non-small cell lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The study comprised the first 193 patients entered onto Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 9761. All had clinically staged T(1-2)N(0)M(0) non-small cell lung cancer, and all underwent curative resections of their primary tumors. Samples of the primary tumor and lymph nodes were taken from lymph node stations 2-12 and shipped to a central laboratory, where each lymph node was histologically processed and stained with H&E as well as with immunohistochemical stain using antibodies to cytokeratin (AE1/3). RESULTS: Altogether, we examined 825 lymph nodes. Whereas routine H&E staining allowed us to detect 18 positive lymph nodes, immunohistochemical staining allowed us to detect 45 positive lymph nodes (P < 0.0001). There were 28 OM [i.e., those detectable only by immunohistochemistry (IHC)], and there was 1 metastasis detected only by H&E staining. The OM included 9 OM in N1 stations and 19 OM in N2 stations. Twelve patients with OM had skip metastases. Routine H&E staining upstaged six patients to N1, and IHC added another five. Routine H&E upstaged 9 patients to N2, and IHC added another 11. We also uncovered new details about the way in which H&E detection depends on metastatic tumor burden. Specifically, for the probability of detecting metastases by H&E to exceed 0.50, the maximum diameter of the metastasis must be greater than 0.23 mm. CONCLUSIONS: IHC detects greater than twice as many positive regional lymph nodes as does H&E staining, and the foci of tumor it detects are significantly smaller than those detected by H&E staining.
Vollmer, RT; Herndon, JE; D'Cunha, J; Abraham, NZ; Solberg, J; Fatourechi, M; Maruska, A; Kern, JA; Green, MR; Kratzke, RA; Maddaus, MA; Cancer and Leukemia Group B Trial 9761,
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