Effect of temperature on kainic acid-induced seizures.
The effects of body temperature on kainic acid-induced seizures and seizure-related brain damage were examined in rats. In rats with status epilepticus induced by intraperitoneal injection of 12 mg/kg of kainic acid (KA), ictal discharges were decreased by 50% when body temperature was lowered to 28 degrees C and nearly abolished when body temperature was lowered to 23 degrees C. In rats with mild hypothermia (28 degrees C), the duration of ictal discharges following KA injection was significantly lower than in rats with normal body temperature. No detectable hippocampal cell loss was observed in rats with hypothermia to 28 degrees C whereas gross cell loss in the hippocampus was observed in all rats with KA injection at normal body temperature. In contract to hypothermia, hyperthermia markedly aggravated the seizures and hippocampal damage induced by KA. Following elevation of body temperature to 42 degrees C KA (12 mg/kg) resulted in severe seizures and all rats died of tonic seizures within 2 h. Furthermore, 6 mg/kg of KA administered to rats with a body temperature of 41-42 degrees C, resulted in up to 4 h of continuous ictal discharges whereas no continuous ictal discharges were observed after the same injections in rats with normal body temperature. Histological examination in rats receiving 6 mg/kg of KA revealed severe cell loss in the hippocampus in rats with hyperthermia but not in rats with normal temperature. These results demonstrate that body temperature plays an important role in the control of epileptic seizures and seizure-related brain damage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Liu, Z; Gatt, A; Mikati, M; Holmes, GL
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