An artificial neural network for estimating scatter exposures in portable chest radiography.
An adaptive linear element (Adaline) was developed to estimate the two-dimensional scatter exposure distribution in digital portable chest radiographs (DPCXR). DPCXRs and quantitative scatter exposure measurements at 64 locations throughout the chest were acquired for ten radiographically normal patients. The Adaline is an artificial neural network which has only a single node and linear thresholding. The Adaline was trained using DPCXR-scatter measurement pairs from five patients. The spatially invariant network would take a portion of the image as its input and estimate the scatter content as output. The trained network was applied to the other five images, and errors were evaluated between estimated and measured scatter values. Performance was compared against a convolution scatter estimation algorithm. The network was evaluated as a function of network size, initial values, and duration of training. Network performance was evaluated qualitatively by the correlation of network weights to physical models, and quantitatively by training and evaluation errors. Using DPCXRs as input, the network learned to describe known scatter exposures accurately (7% error) and estimate scatter in new images (< 8% error) slightly better than convolution methods. Regardless of size and initial shape, all networks adapted into radial exponentials with magnitude of 0.75, perhaps implying an ideal point spread function and average scatter fraction, respectively. To implement scatter compensation, the two-dimensional scatter distribution estimated by the neural network is subtracted from the original DPCXR.
Lo, JY; Floyd, CE; Baker, JA; Ravin, CE
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