Overexpression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 in smooth muscle cells attenuates mitogenic signaling via G protein-coupled and platelet-derived growth factor receptors.
BACKGROUND: Neointimal hyperplasia involves activation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by several G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists, including endothelin-1, angiotensin II, thrombin, and thromboxane A(2). Signaling of many GPCRs is diminished by GPCR kinase-2 (GRK2). We therefore tested whether overexpression of GRK2 in SMCs could diminish mitogenic signaling elicited by agonists implicated in the pathogenesis of neointimal hyperplasia. METHODS AND RESULTS: Overexpression of GRK2 was achieved in primary rabbit aortic SMCs with a recombinant adenovirus. Control SMCs were infected with an empty vector adenovirus. Inositol phosphate responses to endothelin-1, angiotensin II, thrombin agonist peptide, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) were attenuated by 37% to 72% in GRK2-overexpressing cells (P<0.01), but the response to the thromboxane A(2) analogue U46619 was unaffected. GRK2 also inhibited SMC [(3)H]thymidine incorporation stimulated not only by these agonists (by 30% to 60%, P<0.01) but also by 10% FBS (by 35%, P<0. 05). However, GRK2 overexpression had no effect on epidermal growth factor-induced [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. Agonist-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the PDGF-beta receptor, but not the epidermal growth factor receptor, was reduced in GRK2-overexpressing SMCs. GRK2 overexpression also reduced SMC proliferation in response to endothelin-1, PDGF, and 10% FBS by 62%, 51%, and 29%, respectively (P<0.01), without any effect on SMC apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: GRK2 overexpression diminishes SMC mitogenic signaling and proliferation stimulated by PDGF or agonists for several GPCRs. Gene transfer of GRK2 may therefore be therapeutically useful for neointimal hyperplasia.
Peppel, K; Jacobson, A; Huang, X; Murray, JP; Oppermann, M; Freedman, NJ
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