Treatment of neuroinflammation by soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor Type II fused to a thermally responsive carrier.
OBJECT: Biochemical irritation of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) after intervertebral disc herniation contributes to radiculopathy through tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha)-mediated inflammation. Soluble TNF receptor Type II (sTNFRII) sequesters this cytokine, providing clinical benefit. Previous work involving conjugation of sTNFRII with thermally responsive elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) yielded a chimeric protein (ELP-sTNFRII) with in vitro anti-TNFalpha bioactivity. Furthermore, temperature-triggered ELP aggregation into a "depot" prolongs protein residence time following perineural injection. In this study the authors evaluated the inflammatory phenotype of DRG explants after TNFalpha stimulation, and assessed the abilities of sTNFRII or ELP-sTNFRII to attenuate these neuro-inflammatory changes. METHODS: Rat lumbar DRGs (35 animals) were treated in 6 groups, as follows: control; TNFalpha (25 ng/ml); TNFalpha with low-(0.2 microg/ml) or high-dose (1 microg/ml) sTNFRII; and TNFalpha with low-(52.5 microg/ml) or high-dose (262.5 microg/ml) ELP-sTNFRII. After 24 hours, supernatant was evaluated for inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, and IL-10); prostaglandin E2; and metabolites (glutamate, lactate, and pyruvate). Single-factor analysis of variance with post hoc Dunn analysis (alpha = 0.05) was used to assess treatment differences. RESULTS: Incubation of explants with TNFalpha caused metabolic stress reflected by an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio (1.8 +/- 0.5-fold) and extracellular glutamate (79 +/- 8% increase). Inflammatory activation was observed with heightened IL-6 release (5.2 +/- 1.4-fold) and prostaglandin E2 production (14 +/- 3-fold). An autoregulatory response occurred with an 11.8 +/- 0.6-fold increase in sTNFRI shedding. Treatment with high doses of sTNFRII or ELP-sTNFRII reversed all changes. Values are expressed as the mean +/- standard deviation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that TNFalpha stimulation of DRG explants yields a phenotype of neurotoxic metabolite release and inflammatory mediator expression. Coincubation with either sTNFRII or ELP-sTNFRII antagonizes TNFalpha activity to abrogate these changes, suggesting potential for therapeutic intervention to treat peripheral nerve inflammatory disease.
Shamji, MF; Jing, L; Chen, J; Hwang, P; Ghodsizadeh, O; Friedman, AH; Richardson, WJ; Setton, LA
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)