A fiber-based ratiometric optical cardiac mapping channel using a diffraction grating and split detector.
Optical fiber-based mapping systems are used to record the cardiac action potential (AP) throughout the myocardium. The optical AP contains a contraction-induced motion artifact (MA), which makes it difficult to accurately measure the action potential duration (APD). MA is removed by preventing contraction with electrical-mechanical uncoupling drugs, such as 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM). We designed a novel fiber-based ratiometric optical channel using a blue light emitting diode, a diffraction grating, and a split photodetector that can accurately measure the cardiac AP without the need for BDM. The channel was designed based on simulations using the optical design software ZEMAX. The channel has an electrical bandwidth of 150 Hz and an root mean-square dark noise of 742 muV. The channel successfully recorded the cardiac AP from the wall of five rabbit heart preparations without the use of BDM. After 20-point median filtering, the mean signal/noise ratio was 25.3 V/V. The APD measured from the base of a rabbit heart was 134 +/- 8.4 ms, compared to 137.6 +/- 3.3 ms from simultaneous microelectrode recordings. This difference was not statistically significant (p-value = 0.3). The quantity of MA removed was also measured using the motion ratio. The reduction in MA was significant (p-value = 0.0001). This fiber-based system is the first of its kind to enable optical APD measurements in the beating heart wall without the use of BDM.
Brown, NH; Dobrovolny, HM; Gauthier, DJ; Wolf, PD
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