Real-time 3D laparoscopic ultrasonography.
We have previously described 2D array ultrasound transducers operating up to 10 MHz for applications including real time 3D transthoracic imaging, real time volumetric intracardiac echocardiography (ICE), real time 3D intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging, and real time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We have recently built a pair of 2D array transducers for real time 3D laparoscopic ultrasonography (3D LUS). These transducers are intended to be placed down a trocar during minimally invasive surgery. The first is a forward viewing 5 MHz, 11 x 19 array with 198 operating elements. It was built on an 8 layer multilayer flex circuit. The interelement spacing is 0.20 mm yielding an aperture that is 2.2 mm x 3.8 mm. The O.D. of the completed transducer is 10.2 mm and includes a 2 mm tool port. The average measured center frequency is 4.5 MHz, and the -6 dB bandwidth ranges from 15% to 30%. The 50 omega insertion loss, including Gore MicroFlat cabling, is -81.2 dB. The second transducer is a 7 MHz, 36 x 36 array with 504 operating elements. It was built upon a 10 layer multilayer flex circuit. This transducer is in the forward viewing configuration and the interelement spacing is 0.18 mm. The total aperture size is 6.48 mm x 6.48 mm. The O.D. of the completed transducer is 11.4 mm. The average measured center frequency is 7.2 MHz, and the -6 dB bandwidth ranges from 18% to 33%. The 50 omega insertion loss is -79.5 dB, including Gore MicroFlat cable. Real-time in vivo 3D images of canine hearts have been made including an apical 4-chamber view from a substernal access with the first transducer to monitor cardiac function. In addition, we produced real time 3D rendered images of the right pulmonary veins from a right parastemal access with the second transducer, which would be valuable in the guidance of cardiac ablation catheters for treatment of atrial fibrillation.
Light, ED; Idriss, SF; Sullivan, KF; Wolf, PD; Smith, SW
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