Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography for guiding interventional electrophysiology: feasibility study.
At present, there are limited methods of acquiring three-dimensional visualization of cardiac structure and function in real-time during interventional electrophysiology procedures. Images acquired for integration of computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging with electroanatomic mapping systems are static and are obtained earlier in time. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography for the guidance of interventional electrophysiological studies. A matrix array transducer with 504 channels operating at 5 MHz in a 1 cm diameter steerable esophageal probe was used in conjunction with a scanner capable of real-time 3D scanning of pyramidal volumes from 65 degrees to 120 degrees at rates up to 30 volumes per second. This device has a spatial resolution of approximately 3 mm at 5 cm depth. The authors acquired real-time three-dimensional images of anatomic landmarks of value for electrophysiological procedures in five closed chest canines. Real-time, three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was also used for visualization and guidance of interventional catheter devices within the canine heart. Real-time three-dimensional images of the atria, pulmonary veins, and coronary sinus were acquired. Real-time 3-D color flow Doppler was employed to confirm patency. Multiple image planes of image volumes and rendered views were used to track catheter position and orientation. Images of left veno-atrial junctions have been confirmed by dissection. This study has demonstrated the feasiblity of using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography for guiding interventional electrophysiology. The technology has the potential to fill a niche as an adjunct modality for cost-effective real-time interventional guidance and assessment, providing catheter and pacing lead visualization simultaneously with functional volumetric cardiac imaging.
Pua, EC; Idriss, SF; Wolf, PD; Smith, SW
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