Clinical outcomes of palliative surgery including a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease: does aspirin make a difference?
BACKGROUND: Aspirin (ASA) often is used to prevent thrombosis in infants with congenital heart disease after placement of a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt, but its effect on outcomes is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: The present multicenter study prospectively collected data on 1-year postoperative rates of death, shunt thrombosis, or hospitalization age <4 months for bidirectional Glenn/hemi-Fontan surgery in 1004 infants. The use and dose of ASA were recorded. Kaplan-Meier event rates were calculated for each event and the composite outcome, and a Cox regression model was constructed for time to event. Model terms were ASA use and type of surgery, with adjustment for age at surgery. Diagnoses were hypoplastic left heart syndrome (n=346), tricuspid atresia (n=103), tetralogy of Fallot (n=127), pulmonary atresia (n=177), heterotaxy syndrome (n=38), and other (n=213). There were 344 shunts placed without cardiopulmonary bypass (closed shunt), 287 shunts with bypass (open shunt), 323 Norwood procedures, and 50 Sano procedures. Overall, 80% of patients received ASA. One-year postoperative events rates were high: 38% for the composite end point, 26% for death, and 12% for shunt thrombosis. After the exclusion of patients with early mortality, patients receiving ASA had a lower risk of shunt thrombosis (hazard ratio, 0.13; P=0.008) and death (closed shunt: hazard ratio, 0.41, P=0.057; open shunt: hazard ratio, 0.10, P<0.001; Norwood: hazard ratio, 0.34, P<0.001; Sano: hazard ratio, 0.68, P=NS) compared with those not receiving ASA. CONCLUSIONS: The morbidity and mortality for infants after surgical placement of a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt are high. ASA appears to lower the risk of death and shunt thrombosis in the present observational study.
Li, JS; Yow, E; Berezny, KY; Rhodes, JF; Bokesch, PM; Charpie, JR; Forbus, GA; Mahony, L; Boshkov, L; Lambert, V; Bonnet, D; Michel-Behnke, I; Graham, TP; Takahashi, M; Jaggers, J; Califf, RM; Rakhit, A; Fontecave, S; Sanders, SP
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