Implanted neural interfaces: biochallenges and engineered solutions.

Journal Article (Review;Journal Article)

Neural interfaces are connections that enable two-way exchange of information with the nervous system. These connections can occur at multiple levels, including with peripheral nerves, with the spinal cord, or with the brain; in many instances, fundamental biophysical and biological challenges are shared across these levels. We review these challenges, including selectivity, stability, resolution versus invasiveness, implant-induced injury, and the host-interface response. Subsequently, we review the engineered solutions to these challenges, including electrode designs and geometry, stimulation waveforms, materials, and surface modifications. Finally, we consider emerging opportunities to improve neural interfaces, including cellular-level silicon to neuron connections, optical stimulation, and approaches to control inflammation. Overcoming the biophysical and biological challenges will enable effective high-density neural interfaces for stimulation and recording.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Grill, WM; Norman, SE; Bellamkonda, RV

Published Date

  • January 2009

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 11 /

Start / End Page

  • 1 - 24

PubMed ID

  • 19400710

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1545-4274

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1523-9829

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1146/annurev-bioeng-061008-124927


  • eng