Dissecting the genetics of human high myopia: a molecular biologic approach.
PURPOSE: Despite the plethora of experimental myopia animal studies that demonstrate biochemical factor changes in various eye tissues, and limited human studies utilizing pharmacologic agents to thwart axial elongation, we have little knowledge of the basic physiology that drives myopic development. Identifying the implicated genes for myopia susceptibility will provide a fundamental molecular understanding of how myopia occurs and may lead to directed physiologic (ie, pharmacologic, gene therapy) interventions. The purpose of this proposal is to describe the results of positional candidate gene screening of selected genes within the autosomal dominant high-grade myopia-2 locus (MYP2) on chromosome 18p11.31. METHODS: A physical map of a contracted MYP2 interval was compiled, and gene expression studies in ocular tissues using complementary DNA library screens, microarray matches, and reverse-transcription techniques aided in prioritizing gene selection for screening. The TGIF, EMLIN-2, MLCB, and CLUL1 genes were screened in DNA samples from unrelated controls and in high-myopia affected and unaffected family members from the original seven MYP2 pedigrees. All candidate genes were screened by direct base pair sequence analysis. RESULTS: Consistent segregation of a gene sequence alteration (polymorphism) with myopia was not demonstrated in any of the seven families. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. CONCLUSION: The positional candidate genes TGIF, EMLIN-2, MLCB, and CLUL1 are not associated with MYP2-linked high-grade myopia. Base change polymorphisms discovered with base sequence screening of these genes were submitted to an Internet database. Other genes that also map within the interval are currently undergoing mutation screening.
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