Shame or subsidy revisited: social mobilization for sanitation in Orissa, India.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

Objective

To determine the effectiveness of a sanitation campaign that combines 'shaming' (i.e. emotional motivators) with subsidies for poor households in rural Orissa, an Indian state with a disproportionately high share of India's child mortality.

Methods

Using a cluster-randomized design, we selected 20 treatment and 20 control villages in the coastal district of Bhadrak, rural Orissa, for a total sample of 1050 households. We collected sanitation and health data before and after a community-led sanitation project, and we used a difference-in-difference estimator to determine the extent to which the campaign influenced the number of households building and using a latrine.

Findings

Latrine ownership did not increase in control villages, but in treatment villages it rose from 6% to 32% in the overall sample, from 5% to 36% in households below the poverty line (eligible for a government subsidy) and from 7% to 26% in households above the poverty line (not eligible for a government subsidy).

Conclusion

Subsidies can overcome serious budget constraints but are not necessary to spur action, for shaming can be very effective by harnessing the power of social pressure and peer monitoring. Through a combination of shaming and subsidies, social marketing can improve sanitation worldwide.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Pattanayak, SK; Yang, J-C; Dickinson, KL; Poulos, C; Patil, SR; Mallick, RK; Blitstein, JL; Praharaj, P

Published Date

  • August 2009

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 87 / 8

Start / End Page

  • 580 - 587

PubMed ID

  • 19705007

Pubmed Central ID

  • PMC2733281

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1564-0604

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0042-9686

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.2471/blt.08.057422

Language

  • eng