Estimation of momentum and heat fluxes using dissipation and flux- variance methods in the unstable surface layer
Dissipation and flux-variance methods, derived from the turbulent kinetic energy and temperature variance budget equations in conjunction with Monin-Obukov similarity theory, were used to estimate surface fluxes of momentum and sensible heat. To examine the performance of these two methods, direct eddy correlation measurements were carried out above a nonuniform grass-covered forest clearing in Durham, North Carolina. The dissipation method sensible heat flux predictions were in good agreement with eddy correlation measurements. Also, the flux-variance method reproduced the measured sensible heat flux well following an adjustment to the similarity constant. However, the momentum flux (or friction velocity) estimated by the dissipation and flux-variance methods were both inferior to those for sensible heat flux. The data from this experiment indicated that the above two methods are sensitive to the dimensionless wind shear (Φ(m)) and temperature standard deviation (ΦΘ) functions. On the basis of dimensional analysis and the temperature variance budget equation a new dissipation approach for estimating sensible heat flux was derived. The similarity constant for this new approach was shown to be around 1.6 for uniform surfaces and from the data of this experiment.
Hsieh, CI; Katul, GG; Schieldge, J; Sigmon, J; Knoerr, KR
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