Lipid binding to the tail domain of vinculin: specificity and the role of the N and C termini.
Vinculin is a highly conserved and abundant cytoskeletal protein involved in linking the actin cytoskeleton to the cell membrane at sites of cellular adhesion. At these sites of adhesion, vinculin plays a role in physiological processes such as cell motility, migration, development, and wound healing. Loss of normal vinculin function has been associated with cancer phenotypes, cardiovascular disease, and lethal errors in embryogenesis. The tail domain of vinculin (Vt) binds to acidic phospholipids and has been proposed to play a role in vinculin activation and focal adhesion turnover. To better characterize Vt-lipid specificity, we conducted a series of lipid co-sedimentation experiments and find that Vt shows specific association with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), compared with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), or phosphatidylinositol (PI) in the context of mixed lipid vesicles. The C terminus of Vt has been proposed to be important for PIP2 association, as various mutations and deletions within the C-terminal reduce PIP2 association. Lipid co-sedimentation and NMR analyses indicate that removal of the hydrophobic hairpin does not alter Vt structure or PIP2 association. However, more extensive deletions within the C-terminal introduce Vt structural perturbations and reduce PIP2 binding. Intriguingly, a significant increase in PIP2 binding was observed for multiple Vt variants that perturb interactions between the N-terminal strap and helix bundle, suggesting that a rearrangement of this N-terminal strap may be required for PIP2 binding.
Palmer, SM; Playford, MP; Craig, SW; Schaller, MD; Campbell, SL
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