Thrombolysis-related intracranial hemorrhage: a radiographic analysis of 244 cases from the GUSTO-1 trial with clinical correlation. Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious complication of thrombolytic therapy. We systematically reviewed the radiographic features of 244 cases of symptomatic ICH complicating thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO-1) trial, correlated these observations with clinical data, and speculated on hemorrhage pathogenesis. METHODS: CT scans from 244 patients suffering symptomatic ICH were systematically reviewed for selected radiographic features, including ICH type, location, hematoma characteristics, mass effect features, hydrocephalus, and preexisting lesions. Hematoma volume was estimated by computer-assisted volumetric analysis. Data from this analysis were correlated with clinical data including hypertension, anticoagulation, age, thrombolytic regimen, and ICH timing. RESULTS: Most hemorrhages were large (median [25th, 75th percentile] volume, 72 mL [39, 118]), solitary (66%), lobar (77%), confluent (80%), and intraparenchymal (82%) with a blood/fluid level (82%) and little edema (median [25th, 75th percentile] volume, 9 mL [5, 16]). Hydrocephalus (P<.001), any one mass effect feature (P<.001), intraventricular hemorrhage (P=.022), mottled hematoma appearance (P=.050), and hematoma blood/fluid level (P<.001) were associated with higher hemorrhage volume in the radiographic analysis, as were older age (P=.005), treatment with combined streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator (P=.034), and hemorrhage onset 8 to 13 hours after treatment (P=.008) in the clinical analysis. Subdural hemorrhage was a high-volume subgroup whose risk increased with antecedent trauma (P=.026) or syncope (P=.006). Deep intraparenchymal hemorrhage was associated with hypertension (P=.016), and multifocal ICH occurred significantly earlier after treatment (P=.002). CONCLUSIONS: Although the majority of postthrombolytic ICH are large, solitary, and supratentorial, the spectrum is diverse. Features of mass effect reflected the large volumes, and hematoma characteristics of mottling and blood/fluid levels were frequent. Thrombolysis-related coagulopathy and age appear to be the most important identifiable factors in the genesis of postthrombolytic ICH, but the hemorrhage subtype seen may reflect an interaction with other factors such as hypertension, ICH timing, antecedent head trauma, and syncope.
Gebel, JM; Sila, CA; Sloan, MA; Granger, CB; Mahaffey, KW; Weisenberger, J; Green, CL; White, HD; Gore, JM; Weaver, WD; Califf, RM; Topol, EJ
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