Immunologic and virologic analyses of an acutely HIV type 1-infected patient with extremely rapid disease progression.
The immunologic and virologic factors that impact on the rate of disease progression after acute infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 are poorly understood. A patient with an extraordinarily rapid disease course leading to AIDS-associated death within 6 months of infection was studied intensively for the presence of anti-HIV immune reactivities as well as changes in the genetic and biologic properties of virus isolates. Although altered humoral responses were evident, the most distinctive immunologic feature was a nearly complete absence of detectable HIV-specific CTL responses. In addition to a rapid decline in CD3+CD4+ cells, elevated percentages of CD8+CD45RA+ and CD8+CD57+ cells and diminished CD8+CD45R0+ and CD8+CD28+ cells were evident. Primary viral isolates recovered throughout the course of infection exhibited limited sequence diversity. Cloned viral envelopes were found to have unusually broad patterns of coreceptor usage for cell-cell fusion, although infectivity studies yielded no evidence of infection via these alternative receptors. The infectivity studies demonstrated that these isolates and their envelopes maintained an R5 phenotype throughout the course of disease. The absence of demonstrable anti-HIV CTL reactivities, coupled with a protracted course of seroconversion, highlights the importance of robust HIV-specific immune responses in the control of disease progression.
Demarest, JF; Jack, N; Cleghorn, FR; Greenberg, ML; Hoffman, TL; Ottinger, JS; Fantry, L; Edwards, J; O'Brien, TR; Cao, K; Mahabir, B; Blattner, WA; Bartholomew, C; Weinhold, KJ
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