Number of trophic levels in ecological communities


Journal Article

ECOLOGICAL food chains are typically short, consisting of not more than four or five trophic levels. This is usually explained by a reduction in the energy which is available to successive links in the food chain1,2. In contrast, we believe that the number of trophic levels is constrained by population dynamics and not by ecological energetics. © 1977 Nature Publishing Group.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Pimm, SL; Lawton, JH

Published Date

  • December 1, 1977

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 268 / 5618

Start / End Page

  • 329 - 331

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0028-0836

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1038/268329a0

Citation Source

  • Scopus