Fundus lesions in malignant hypertension. III. Arterial blood pressure, biochemical, and fundus changes.
Malignant (accelerated) renovascular arterial hypertension was produced in 57 adult rhesus monkeys by clamping the renal artery (one-kidney model in 25 animals and two-kidney model in 32). The animals were investigated before renal artery clamping and serially thereafter by recording systolic arterial blood pressure (BP), biochemical changes, and changes in the fundus of the eye; the latter was evaluated by ophthalmoscopy, stereoscopic color fundus photography, and fluorescein fundus angiography. All of the animals developed arterial hypertension. The data on BP, biochemical, and fundus findings were analyzed and correlated. The findings of this study clearly showed that the various fundus lesions seen in these hypertensive animals fall into three distinct categories: (1) hypertensive retinopathy, (2) hypertensive choroidopathy, and (3) hypertensive optic neuropathy. The appearance of the retinopathy was significantly earlier than that of the choroidopathy or optic neuropathy (P less than 0.01), but the difference between the times of appearance of the choroidopathy and neuropathy was not significant. There was no significance in the order in which the three types of fundus changes reached their maximum severity. There was no significant difference between the mean BPs when the retinopathy, choroidopathy, or optic neuropathy first appeared, nor between the BPs at the time of their appearance and at the time when they were most marked. In monkeys of the one-kidney model, the rise in BP developed significantly (P = 0.01) faster and the fundus lesions appeared significantly (P = 0.00001) earlier than in those with the two-kidney model.
Hayreh, SS; Servais, GE; Virdi, PS; Marcus, ML; Rojas, P; Woolson, RF
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