A Monte Carlo investigation of homogeneity tests of the odds ratio under various sample size configurations.
Epidemiologic data for case-control studies are often summarized into K 2 x 2 tables. Given a fixed number of cases and controls, the degree of sparseness in the data depends on the number of strata, K. The effect of increasing stratification on size and power of seven tests of homogeneity of the odds ratio is studied using Monte Carlo methods. In all the designs considered here, the numbers of cases and controls per stratum are the same. Considering both size and power in non-sparse-data settings, we recommend the Breslow-Day statistic (1980, Statistical Methods in Cancer Research, 1. The Analysis of Case-Control Studies, p. 142; Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer) for general use. In sparse-data settings the T4 statistic of Liang and Self (1985, Biometrika 72, 353-358) performs the best when all tables, regardless of sample size, have odds ratios generated from the same distribution. In sparse-data settings characterized by a large table with an odds ratio of 1 and many small tables with odds ratios greater than 1, the T5 statistic of Liang and Self (1985) performs the best. One of the most important results of this study is the generally low power for all homogeneity tests especially when the data are sparse.
Jones, MP; O'Gorman, TW; Lemke, JH; Woolson, RF
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