Mouse model of subarachnoid hemorrhage associated cerebral vasospasm: methodological analysis.
The transgenic mouse has been used to study subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) induced delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCV). Methodological parameters have not been analyzed to validate this model and associated neurological deficits have not been described. We introduce a technique to quantify DCV and associated neurological deficits. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to SAH or sham surgery. Seventy-two hours later, the vasculature was cast in situ with India ink/gelatin at perfusion pressures of 40-60, 60-80, or 100-120 mmHg. Mice were perfused with and without microfiltration. Additional mice underwent grading of SAH size, measurement of vascular diameters, and neurological examination (score range 5-27; 27= normal). When cast at 60-80 mmHg, SAH was associated with an intraluminal cross-sectional diameter reduction in 3 of 7 ipsilateral vascular segments. At 40-60 mmHg, the diameter of only one segment was reduced. No changes were observed at 100-120 mmHg. Emboli prevented adequate perfusion of vascular segments in the absence of microfiltration. Median (interquartile range) neurologic score was reduced after SAH (sham, 27(27); SAH 11(7-17)). Deficits correlated with middle cerebral artery (MCA) diameter and SAH grade. MCA diameter also correlated with SAH grade. Only when utilizing microfiltration, controlling for hemorrhage size, and casting at perfusion pressures of 60-80 mmHg does India ink/gelatin vascular casting demonstrate consistent DCV that correspnds to neurological deficits. This allows measurement of both anatomical and clinical DCV in the mouse.
Parra, A; McGirt, MJ; Sheng, H; Laskowitz, DT; Pearlstein, RD; Warner, DS
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