Monitoring FET flow control and wall adsorption of charged fluorescent dye molecules in nanochannels integrated into a multiple internal reflection infrared waveguide.
Using Si as the substrate, we have fabricated multiple internal reflection infrared waveguides embedded with a parallel array of nanofluidic channels. The channel width is maintained substantially below the mid-infrared wavelength to minimize infrared scattering from the channel structure and to ensure total internal reflection at the channel bottom. A Pyrex slide is anodically bonded to the top of the waveguide to seal the nanochannels, while simultaneously enabling optical access in the visible range from the top. The Si channel bottom and sidewalls are thermally oxidized to provide an electrically insulating barrier, and the Si substrate surrounding the insulating SiO(2) layer is selectively doped to function as a gate. For fluidic field effect transistor (FET) control, a DC potential is applied to the gate to manipulate the surface charge on SiO(2) channel bottom and sidewalls and therefore their zeta-potential. Depending on the polarity and magnitude, the gate potential can accelerate, decelerate, or reverse the flow. Here, we demonstrate that this nanofluidic infrared waveguide can be used to monitor the FET flow control of charged, fluorescent dye molecules during electroosmosis by multiple internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy is simultaneously used to provide a comparison and verification of the IR analysis. Using the infrared technique, we probe the vibrational modes of dye molecules, as well as those of the solvent. The observed infrared absorbance accounts for the amount of dye molecules advancing or retracting in the nanochannels, as well as adsorbing to and desorbing from the channel bottom and sidewalls.
Oh, Y-J; Gamble, TC; Leonhardt, D; Chung, C-H; Brueck, SRJ; Ivory, CF; Lopez, GP; Petsev, DN; Han, SM
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