Intraneuronal ApoE in human visual cortical areas reflects the staging of Alzheimer disease pathology.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is marked by progressive loss of cortical neurons with associated cognitive decline. Multiple genetic and environmental factors likely contribute to this progressive loss. Such genetic factors include the polymorphic locus (APOE) that encodes apolipoprotein E (apoE). In order to investigate a possible correspondence between cellular localization of apoE and the neuropathology of AD, we examined the distribution of apoE-immunoreactive neurons in visual cortical areas with different apparent susceptibility to AD neuropathology (areas 17-primary sensory, 18-secondary sensory, and inferior temporal-association cortex) at different stages of AD pathology as described by Braak and Braak. We found that intraneuronal apoE was present at all these stages, however, only in visual cortical regions known to be vulnerable to AD. In the late stages, the laminar distribution of apoE-immunoreactivity matched the distribution of other markers of AD pathology, especially modified tau. These data support previous findings that intraneuronal apoE in neocortex is common in aged, nondemented controls and demonstrate that it may be more common in regions at risk for AD pathology. Thus, intraneuronal accumulation of apoE may be an attribute of cortical neurons that are more vulnerable to age-related injury with the presence of apoE antedating the classical indices of late-onset AD pathology.
Einstein, G; Patel, V; Bautista, P; Kenna, M; Melone, L; Fader, R; Karson, K; Mann, S; Saunders, AM; Hulette, C; Mash, D; Roses, AD; Schmechel, DE
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