The influence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and irradiation on hydroxyapatite ocular implant exposure and fibrovascular ingrowth in New Zealand white rabbits.
PURPOSE: Lack of adequate fibrovascular ingrowth has been implicated as a cause of exposure of hydroxyapatite (HA) implants in anophthalmic sockets. We investigated the vasculopathic effects of external beam irradiation, and the fibrovascular-enhancement effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), on HA implant exposure and fibrovascular ingrowth in a rabbit model. METHODS: Eighteen rabbits underwent enucleation with implantation of a 12-mm HA sphere. Six rabbits received 20 Gy of external beam orbital irradiation prior to enucleation. Three irradiated and 6 nonirradiated rabbits received postoperative HBO. Three weeks postoperatively, all rabbits were evaluated clinically for evidence of implant exposure. Implants were then removed, and histopathologic analysis of fibrovascular ingrowth was performed. RESULTS: The amount of vascularization as measured by the depth of ingrowth was greater for nonirradiated (89% ingrowth) than for irradiated (71% ingrowth) animals. HA implant exposure occurred in 1 of 12 (8%) of the nonirradiated, and 4 of 6 (67%) of the irradiated rabbit orbits. HBO did not protect irradiated rabbits from exposure, but did enhance fibrovascular ingrowth in nonirradiated rabbits (100% ingrowth vs. 77% ingrowth). CONCLUSION: Impaired orbital vascularization from prior irradiation appears to retard fibrovascular ingrowth into HA implants, and is associated with an increased incidence of exposure. While HBO did not diminish the likelihood of exposure in irradiated sockets, HA fibrovascular ingrowth in normal orbits appeared to increase with HBO. This may have beneficial clinical application in cases of exposure in nonirradiated orbits.
DeBacker, CM; Dutton, JJ; Proia, AD; Halperin, EC; Wagle, TN; Holck, DE
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