Self-reported ADHD and adjustment in college: cross-sectional and longitudinal findings.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between self-reported ADHD and college adjustment. PARTICIPANTS: Study 1 included nearly 3400 undergraduates attending a public and private university. Study 2 included 846 students who participated during freshman and sophomore year. METHOD: Students completed a web-based survey that assessed diagnostic status and adjustment in multiple domains. RESULTS: Relative to other students, those with self-reported ADHD had lower GPAs and reported more academic concerns, depressive symptoms, social concerns, emotional instability, and substance use. Overall, however, most were making satisfactory adjustments in these domains. Benefits of medication treatment were not found. Freshman year ADHD predicted lower GPA, increased academic concerns and alcohol use, and smoking initiation. CONCLUSION: Students with ADHD struggled relative to peers but most were adjusting reasonably well across multiple domains. Future research should move beyond the use of self-reported diagnosis and more carefully examine the impact of medication treatment in this population.
Blase, SL; Gilbert, AN; Anastopoulos, AD; Costello, EJ; Hoyle, RH; Swartzwelder, HS; Rabiner, DL
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