Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of higher-dose, double-bolus eptifibatide in percutaneous coronary intervention.
BACKGROUND: Pharmacodynamics of eptifibatide, a cyclic heptapeptide antagonist of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, are substantially altered by anticoagulants that chelate calcium, resulting in overestimation ex vivo of the in vivo effects of this agent. We conducted a dose-ranging study to characterize the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of eptifibatide under physiological conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n=39) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to an eptifibatide bolus followed by an infusion (180-microgram/kg bolus followed by 2 microgram/kg per minute or 250-microgram/kg bolus followed by 3 microgram/kg per minute) for 18 to 24 hours. In a 2:1 ratio, these patients received either a second bolus of eptifibatide (90 microgram/kg or 125 microgram/kg for the initial 180-microgram/kg or 250-microgram/kg groups, respectively) or placebo 30 minutes after the initial bolus. Bleeding times, ex vivo platelet aggregation, receptor occupancy, and plasma eptifibatide levels at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 hours were evaluated. Platelet inhibition was dose dependent and >80% in all groups by steady state. The single-bolus regimens had a transient loss of inhibition at 1 hour, consistent with rapid distribution and drug elimination. Pharmacokinetic modeling suggested that optimal dosing of eptifibatide would be obtained with a 180-microgram/kg bolus and a 2-microgram/kg per minute infusion followed by a second 180-microgram/kg bolus 10 minutes later. CONCLUSIONS: A novel higher-dose, double-bolus regimen of eptifibatide in coronary intervention attains and maintains >90% inhibition of platelet aggregation in >90% of patients, providing the pharmacodynamic construct for the design of the Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial of adjunctive eptifibatide in coronary stent implantation.
Gilchrist, IC; O'Shea, JC; Kosoglou, T; Jennings, LK; Lorenz, TJ; Kitt, MM; Kleiman, NS; Talley, D; Aguirre, F; Davidson, C; Runyon, J; Tcheng, JE
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