Achieving optimal results with standard balloon angioplasty: can baseline and angiographic variables predict stent-like outcomes?
OBJECTIVES: To predict which patients might not require stent implantation, we identified clinical and angiographic characteristics associated with repeat revascularization after standard balloon angioplasty. BACKGROUND: Stents reduce the risk of repeat revascularization but are costly and may lead to in-stent restenosis, which remains difficult to treat. Identification of patients at low risk for repeat revascularization may allow clinicians to reserve stents for patients most likely to benefit. METHODS: Data from five interventional trials (5,146 patients) were pooled for analysis. We identified patients with optimal angiographic results (final diameter stenosis < or =30% and no dissection) after balloon angioplasty and determined the multivariable predictors of repeat revascularization. RESULTS: Optimal angiographic results were achieved in 18% of patients after angioplasty. The repeat revascularization rate at six months was lower for patients with optimal results (20% vs. 26%, p < 0.001) but still higher than observed in stent trials. Independent predictors of repeat revascularization were female gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.67, p = 0.01), lesion length > or =10 mm (OR 1.62, p = 0.03) and proximal left anterior descending coronary artery lesions (OR 1.62, p = 0.03). For the 8% of patients with optimal angiographic results and none of these risk factors, the repeat revascularization and target vessel revascularization rates were 14% and 8% respectively, similar to rates after stent implantation. Cost analysis estimated that $78 million per year might be saved in the U.S. with a provisional stenting strategy using these criteria compared with elective stenting. CONCLUSIONS: A combination of baseline characteristics and angiographic results can be used to identify a small group of patients at very low risk for repeat revascularization after balloon angioplasty. Provisional stenting for these low risk patients could substantially reduce costs without compromising clinical outcomes.
Cantor, WJ; Hellkamp, AS; Peterson, ED; Zidar, JP; Cowper, PA; Sketch, MH; Tcheng, JE; Califf, RM; Ohman, EM
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