Design and methodology of the ESPRIT trial: evaluating a novel dosing regimen of eptifibatide in percutaneous coronary intervention.
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials of the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors have shown that these potent antiplatelet agents are effective in reducing the ischemic complications of percutaneous coronary interventions. However, even though stents are now implanted in >75% of percutaneous interventional procedures, only one study, a trial of the monoclonal antibody abciximab, has formally evaluated adjunctive GP IIb/IIIa inhibition in this setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eptifibatide, a nonimmunogenic and rapidly reversible inhibitor of the platelet receptor integrin IIb/IIIa, has also undergone evaluation as an adjunct to coronary intervention. In clinical trials performed heretofore, however, it has appeared to have less relative clinical efficacy than the monoclonal antibody abciximab. Since the early seminal trials, it has been recognized that the doses of eptifibatide previously used achieved only 30% to 50% of maximal platelet GP IIb/IIIa integrin inhibition. This is considerably less than the 80% level of receptor inhibition that has been proposed to prevent coronary thrombus formation in animal models and that has been achieved in clinical trials with abciximab. CONCLUSIONS: The Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet IIb/IIIa Receptor with Integrilin Therapy (ESPRIT) trial was designed to test the safety and efficacy of a high-dose, "180/2.0/180" double-bolus regimen of eptifibatide (a 180-microg/kg bolus followed 10 minutes later by a second 180-microg/kg bolus of eptifibatide combined with a 2.0-microg/kg per minute infusion) as an adjunct to nonacute percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. In this report, we review the rationale, design, and methods of this clinical investigation.
O'shea, JC; Madan, M; Cantor, WJ; Pacchiana, CM; Greenberg, S; Joseph, DM; Kitt, MM; Lorenz, TJ; Tcheng, JE
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