Determination of platelet aggregation inhibition during percutaneous coronary intervention with the platelet function analyzer PFA-100.
BACKGROUND: A simple device to rapidly evaluate platelet function may aid in optimizing glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We prospectively studied platelet function in 250 patients receiving abciximab or eptifibatide during PCI. METHODS AND RESULTS: The platelet function analyzer PFA-100 (Dade-Behring, Deerfield, Ill) measures platelet function by determining the time to occlusion of an aperture in a biochemically active membrane as whole blood flows under high shear conditions. Platelet aggregation causes aperture occlusion, and results are reported as a closure time (CT). All patients received either abciximab or eptifibatide, along with aspirin and heparin; patients undergoing stent implantation received aspirin and a thienopyridine postprocedure. The CT was measured at baseline and 10 minutes, 4 hours, 12 hours (abciximab-only), and 24 hours after the bolus. Profound inhibition was exhibited in most patients shortly after the platelet inhibitor bolus and during the course of therapy. We observed recovery of platelet function 12 hours after discontinuation of abciximab, with a high degree of interpatient variability, and ongoing profound platelet inhibition 4 to 6 hours after the discontinuation of eptifibatide. Among patients treated with abciximab, patients who were obese recovered from platelet inhibition sooner than patients who were not obese, whereas patients who were elderly had delayed recovery compared with patients who were not elderly. Failure to achieve maximal platelet inhibition (nonclosure) at 10 minutes indicated a possible association with adverse clinical events at the 6-month follow-up examination (60% vs 20%). CONCLUSIONS: PFA-100 is a rapid simple assay used as a means of assessing inhibition of platelet aggregation during PCI performed with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition. Failure to achieve nonclosure early after the initiation of abciximab therapy warrants further investigation because there may be an association with adverse cardiac events at 6-month follow-up.
Madan, M; Berkowitz, SD; Christie, DJ; Smit, AC; Sigmon, KN; Tcheng, JE
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