Evaluation of the clinical pharmacology of nilvadipine in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension.
Eighty-four patients with diastolic blood pressure ranging from 100-115 mm Hg were randomized into a multicenter, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose response study with nilvadipine (6 mg, 8 mg, 10 mg tid for 28 days). The hypotensive response pattern to nilvadipine was similar with all three doses although duration of response was dose dependent. Maximal decreases in diastolic blood pressure occurred at 1 hour when assessed on days 1 and 15 (16.0, 17.4, and 15.8 mm Hg, vs 17.2, 18.7, and 17.5 mm Hg, respectively). The hypotensive effect remained significant compared to placebo for at least 4 hours after dosing. The increase in heart rate associated with the maximal hypotensive response was minimal and not clinically significant (day 1: 7.6, 5.2, and 4.0 beats/min with 6, 8, and 10 mg; day 15: 4.0, 5.1, 2.6 beats/min with 6, 8, 9, and 10 mg, respectively). Finally, a correlation between plasma drug concentrations and nilvadipine-induced hypotensive response was observed (r = 0.48). Black and white hypertensive patients had similar hypotensive responses. Plasma nilvadipine concentrations on day 15 were similar to those on day 1 suggesting no accumulation of drug with a tid regimen. The most common drug related side effect was headache; less frequently seen were dizziness, edema, palpitations, and abdominal pain. Nilvadipine was well tolerated (only three patients were discontinued due to side effects). The efficacy, lack of tachycardia, and side effect profile observed in this study suggest that nilvadipine may be an important addition to the treatment of hypertension.
Weir, MR; Vlachkis, ND; DeQuattro, V; Douglas, J; Svetkey, LP; Singh, S; Wiedl, SC; Chen, CF; Woodward, DL; Saunders, E
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