Effect of low-dose aspirin on thromboxane production and the antihypertensive effect of captopril.
Some of the antihypertensive effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors occur through nonangiotensin II-mediated mechanisms. One of these is through decreased kinin degradation, leading to enhanced production of vasodilator arachidonic acid metabolites. It was reasoned that if ACE inhibition also leads to an increase in the production of the potent vasoconstrictor thromboxane A2, then maneuvers that selectively inhibit thromboxane production without reducing prostaglandins (PG) E2 + PGI2 might enhance the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibition. This double-blinded, randomized, crossover study was therefore undertaken to determine: (1) if captopril increases platelet and/or renal thromboxane production; and (2) if low-dose aspirin enhances the antihypertensive effect of captopril. Patients with mild essential hypertension and no other significant medical problems were studied. In a double-blinded, random order, patients took captopril alone (25 mg every 12 h) for 2 wk and captopril plus aspirin (75 mg/day) for another 2 wk. Active treatment periods were preceded by 2 wk of single-blind placebo. Fifteen patients with a mean age of 53 yr and an average mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 114 +/- 8 (+/- SD) mm Hg were studied. Serum thromboxane B2 was higher (P < 0.05) during treatment with captopril/placebo (600 +/- 46 (+/- SE) pg/mL) than during the two washout periods combined (420 +/- 57 and 553 +/- 78) and was lowest (P < 0.0005) during treatment with captopril/aspirin (302 +/- 36). Captopril treatment significantly increased the urinary excretion of PGE2 (P = 0.038). Captopril/placebo significantly lowered MAP (P < 0.05) to 105.0 +/- 3.7 mm Hg compared with the washout period. However, the addition of aspirin to captopril caused no additional lowering of MAP (105.2 +/- 2.8 mm Hg). It was concluded that treatment with captopril does increase platelet thromboxane production. However, lowering platelet thromboxane with low doses of aspirin may not enhance the antihypertensive effect of captopril.
Smith, SR; Coffman, TM; Svetkey, LP
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