Effects of PREMIER lifestyle modifications on participants with and without the metabolic syndrome.
Lifestyle modification can reduce blood pressure and lower cardiovascular risk. Established recommendations include weight loss, sodium reduction, and increased physical activity. PREMIER studied the effects of lifestyle interventions based on established recommendations alone and with the addition of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern. This analysis aimed to assess the interventions' impact on cardiometabolic variables in participants with, compared with those without, metabolic syndrome. The primary outcome was 6-month change in systolic blood pressure. Participants with prehypertension or stage-1 hypertension were randomly assigned to an advice only control group, a 6-month intensive behavioral intervention group of established recommendations (EST), or an established recommendations plus DASH group (EST+DASH). Metabolic syndrome was defined per National Cholesterol and Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. We used general linear models to test intervention effects on change in blood pressure, lipids, and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment), in subgroups defined by the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome. Of 796 participants, 399 had metabolic syndrome. Both EST and EST+DASH reduced the primary outcome variable, systolic blood pressure. Within the EST+DASH group, those with and without metabolic syndrome responded similarly (P=0.231). However, within EST, those with metabolic syndrome had a poorer response, with a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 8.4 mm Hg versus 12.0 mm Hg in those without metabolic syndrome (P=0.002). Thus, metabolic syndrome attenuated the systolic blood pressure reduction of EST, but this attenuation was overcome in EST+DASH. Finally, diastolic blood pressure, lipids, and homeostasis model assessment responded similarly to both interventions regardless of metabolic syndrome status. Our data suggest that strategies for lowering BP in individuals with metabolic syndrome may be enhanced by recommendations to adopt the DASH dietary pattern.
Lien, LF; Brown, AJ; Ard, JD; Loria, C; Erlinger, TP; Feldstein, AC; Lin, P-H; Champagne, CM; King, AC; McGuire, HL; Stevens, VJ; Brantley, PJ; Harsha, DW; McBurnie, MA; Appel, LJ; Svetkey, LP
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