Evaluation of polyphosphates and polyphosphonates as degradable biomaterials.
A series of polymers, bisphenol A-based poly(phosphoesters), were evaluated as degradable biomaterials. Degradation was observed for the four polymers studied under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. The rate of degradation was affected by polymer side-chain structure and correlated with the swelling behavior. The ethyl side-chain polymers absorbed more water than their phenyl counterparts. Among the sterilization methods, UV irradiation followed by antibiotic treatment was the most suitable, as steam autoclave and ethylene oxide treatments altered the properties of several of the poly (phosphoesters). Tissue response to the poly(phosphoesters) in rabbits was characterized by minor encapsulation and slight or no lymphocyte, giant cell, or macrophage activity. No evidence of edema or necrosis was found. The elastic moduli of these materials varied from 488 MPa for poly(bisphenol A-ethylphosphate) (BPA/EOP) to 627 MPa for the more rigid poly(bisphenol A-phenylphosphonate) (BPA/PP). The ultimate strength, modulus, and energy to failure of BPA/PP were lower than those of similarly compression molded high-molecular-weight poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA).
Richards, M; Dahiyat, BI; Arm, DM; Brown, PR; Leong, KW
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