Isoform-specific thyroid hormone receptor antibodies detect multiple thyroid hormone receptors in rat and human pituitaries.

Journal Article (Journal Article)

There are three known isoforms of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) in the rat: TR alpha-1, TR beta-1, and TR beta-2. The TR alpha-1 and TR beta-1 mRNAs are found in many tissues, whereas TR beta-2 mRNA is detected only in the pituitary gland. Thus far, TR alpha-1 and TR beta-1 mRNAs have been found in humans and are highly homologous to their counterparts in rats; however, TR beta-2 mRNA has not yet been demonstrated in humans. To examine the expression of these TRs at the protein level, we have raised isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies in female New Zealand White rabbits against the rat TRs and c-erbA alpha-2, a carboxy-terminal variant of TR alpha-1 that does not bind thyroid hormone. The rabbits were immunized with synthetic peptides that contained the following amino acid sequences: TR alpha-common-(10-31), c-erbA alpha-2-(428-442), TR beta-1-(73-93), and TR beta-2-(86-101, 113-133). All immune sera could bind specifically to their respective immunizing peptides on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well as immunoprecipitate specifically in vitro translated rat and human TRs. Anti-TR beta-1 and anti-TR alpha-common antibodies could immunoprecipitate TR beta-1 or TR alpha-1, respectively, in transfected COS-7 cells. We also immunostained normal adult rat and human pituitary glands. Each isoform-specific antibody could immunostain almost all of the anterior pituitary cells, suggesting that TR alpha-1, TR beta-1, TR beta-2, and c-erbA alpha-2 are most likely expressed in all anterior pituitary cell types in rats and humans. The staining of rat pituitary glands by the anti-TR beta-2 antibodies demonstrates for the first time that TR beta-2 is expressed as a protein in pituitary cells. Furthermore, the staining of human pituitary glands by the anti-TR beta-2 antibodies suggests that there is a human homolog of the rat pituitary-specific TR beta-2 that shares similar epitopes with the rat TR beta-2. In summary, we have prepared isoform-specific antibodies against TRs that can recognize in vitro translated, transiently transfected, and in situ rat and human pituitary TRs. These antibodies will be useful in examining tissue- and cell type-specific expression of rat and human TRs at the protein level.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Yen, PM; Sunday, ME; Darling, DS; Chin, WW

Published Date

  • March 1992

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 130 / 3

Start / End Page

  • 1539 - 1546

PubMed ID

  • 1537303

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0013-7227

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1210/endo.130.3.1537303


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States