Adult cases of leukoencephalopathy, cerebral calcifications, and cysts: expanding the spectrum of the disorder.
Leukoencephalopathy with cerebral calcifications and cysts (LCC) was first reported in children who developed cognitive decline and variable extrapyramidal, cerebellar, and pyramidal signs, with or without seizures. Leukoencephalopathy with cerebral calcifications and cysts is characterized by progressive formation of brain cysts that can generate a mass effect simulating a neoplasm. Retinal changes that overlap with Coats disease, a microangiopathy with retinal telangiectasias and exudates, may also occur. We and others have reported LCC cases in adults. Neuroimaging shows diffuse leukoencephalopathy, multifocal calcifications especially of deep gray and white matter, multifocal enhancement, and variably sized cysts that may require surgical decompression. Biopsies adjacent to cysts have shown angiomatous and/or severely hyalinized blood vessels surrounded by myelin loss and gliosis, calcifications, and Rosenthal fibers. We report 2 additional adult-onset cases of LCC. Case 1 is a 40-year-old man who developed neurological symptoms and cirrhosis and died of acute gastrointestinal bleeding; he had numerous retinal microinfarcts at autopsy. Case 2 is a 55-year-old woman who was found by chance to have LCC; one and a half years later, her course remains benign. These cases expand the spectrum of adult-onset LCC, the etiology of which is unknown.
Kleinschmidt-Demasters, BK; Cummings, TJ; Hulette, CM; Morgenlander, JC; Corboy, JR
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