Acylation of naturally occurring and synthetic 1-deoxysphinganines by ceramide synthase. Formation of N-palmitoyl-aminopentol produces a toxic metabolite of hydrolyzed fumonisin, AP1, and a new category of ceramide synthase inhibitor.
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the predominant member of a family of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme (Sheldon) and related fungi. Certain foods also contain the aminopentol backbone (AP1) that is formed upon base hydrolysis of the ester-linked tricarballylic acids of FB1. Both FB1 and, to a lesser extent, AP1 inhibit ceramide synthase due to structural similarities between fumonisins (as 1-deoxy-analogs of sphinganine) and sphingoid bases. To explore these structure-function relationships further, erythro- and threo-2-amino, 3-hydroxy- (and 3, 5-dihydroxy-) octadecanes were prepared by highly stereoselective syntheses. All of these analogs inhibit the acylation of sphingoid bases by ceramide synthase, and are themselves acylated with Vmax/Km of 40-125 for the erythro-isomers (compared with approximately 250 for D-erythro-sphinganine) and 4-6 for the threo-isomers. Ceramide synthase also acylates AP1 (but not FB1, under the conditions tested) to N-palmitoyl-AP1 (PAP1) with a Vmax/Km of approximately 1. The toxicity of PAP1 was evaluated using HT29 cells, a human colonic cell line. PAP1 was at least 10 times more toxic than FB1 or AP1 and caused sphinganine accumulation as an inhibitor of ceramide synthase. These studies demonstrate that: the 1-hydroxyl group is not required for sphingoid bases to be acylated; both erythro- and threo-isomers are acylated with the highest apparent Vmax/Km for the erythro-analogs; and AP1 is acylated to PAP1, a new category of ceramide synthase inhibitor as well as a toxic metabolite that may play a role in the diseases caused by fumonisins.
Humpf, HU; Schmelz, EM; Meredith, FI; Vesper, H; Vales, TR; Wang, E; Menaldino, DS; Liotta, DC; Merrill, AH
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