Cytokine production induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan. Relationship to chemical structure.
Lipoarabinomannan (LAM), a major cell wall component of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, exhibits a wide spectrum of immunoregulatory effects. To identify cytokines produced by human PBMC in response to LAM, we used PCR amplification to detect cytokine mRNA. LAM-induced transcription of mRNA for cytokines characteristically produced by macrophages, including TNF, granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10. In contrast, LAM did not induce transcription of mRNA for cytokines produced predominantly by lymphocytes, such as lymphotoxin, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, or IL-4. Measurement of concentrations of TNF, granulocyte-macrophage-CSF, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-gamma, IL-2, and IL-4 in cell culture supernatants indicated that cytokine release correlated with mRNA patterns. Lipomannan (LM) and phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIM) are simpler versions of LAM. LM lacks arabinan, whereas PIM lacks both arabinan and most mannan residues. LAM, LM, and PIM induced transcription of cytokine mRNA, elicited cytokine production, and suppressed Ag-induced T cell proliferation, indicating that most of the biologic activity of LAM was associated with the phosphatidylinositol end of the molecule. In support of this conclusion, deacylation of LAM abrogated its capacity to induce cytokine production and suppress Ag-induced proliferation. The production of macrophage-derived cytokines induced by LAM may mediate clinical manifestations of tuberculosis such as fever, weight loss, and tissue necrosis, as well as immunoregulatory effects such as inhibition of Ag-induced proliferation and hyperglobulinemia.
Barnes, PF; Chatterjee, D; Abrams, JS; Lu, S; Wang, E; Yamamura, M; Brennan, PJ; Modlin, RL
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