Hydrolyzed fumonisins HFB1 and HFB2 are acylated in vitro and in vivo by ceramide synthase to form cytotoxic N-acyl-metabolites.
Fumonisins B1 and B2 (FB1 and FB2) are the most abundant members of the fumonisins--mycotoxins that are produced by Fusarium verticillioides and are natural inhibitors of ceramide synthase. Their hydrolyzed forms, HFB1 and HFB2 (also called AP1 and AP2) are found in some foods, and they are not only inhibitors of ceramide synthase but also undergo acylation by this enzyme. This study characterized the conversion of HFB1 and HFB2 by ceramide synthase to their respective N-acylated metabolites using rat liver microsomes and palmitoyl-CoA or nervonoyl-CoA as cosubstrates, and examined animals that had been dosed with hydrolyzed fumonisins to ascertain if acylation occurs in vivo. Using an HPLC-MS/MS method that allowed the sensitive and selective detection of the acylation products, both HFB1 and HFB2 were found to be metabolized in vitro to nervonoyl- or palmitoyl-HFB1 and -HFB2 (i.e. C24:1-HFB1/2 and C16-HFB1/2, respectively). The apparent vmax was considerably higher for formation of C24:1HFB1 (157 pmol/min/mg protein) than for formation of C16HFB1 (8.7 pmol/min/mg protein). The acylation products also inhibited ceramide synthase and significantly reduced the number of viable cells in an in vitro [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)] assay using a human colonic cell line (HT29). Furthermore, HPLC-MS/MS analysis of tissues from rats given intraperitoneal doses of HFB1 confirmed that formation of N-acyl-HFB1 occurs in vivo to produce metabolites with fatty acids of various chain lengths. The contribution of acylated HFB1 and HFB2 metabolites to fumonisin toxicity in vivo warrants further investigation.
Seiferlein, M; Humpf, H-U; Voss, KA; Sullards, MC; Allegood, JC; Wang, E; Merrill, AH
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