Effects of sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramide-1-phosphate on rat intestinal smooth muscle cells: implications for postoperative ileus.
Postoperative ileus, a major cause of morbidity after abdominal surgery, is characterized by intestinal dysmotility and inflammation. The aim was to investigate the involvement of sphingolipids in postoperative intestinal inflammation using a standardized rat model of intestinal surgical manipulation. Sphingolipid analysis (ESI-MS) of intestinal muscularis after manipulation revealed a time-dependent increase of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and of ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P). We therefore established a culture system of primary rat intestinal smooth muscle cells and examined the potential role of these sphingolipids in intestinal inflammation. Incubation of cells with either of the two sphingolipid-phosphates resulted in an elevated production of PGE(2). Further analysis revealed that S1P enhances cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression whereas C1P increases release of arachidonic acid, indicating an enhanced phospholipase A(2) activity. S1P-induced COX-2 expression was pertussis toxin sensitive, suggesting the involvement of Gi/o protein-coupled S1P receptors. Further downstream mediators of S1P induced COX-2 expression appear to be extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Collectively, our results demonstrate that intestinal smooth muscle cells represent a major target for both C1P and S1P activity. Thus, the sustained elevated concentration of the two bioactive sphingolipids in this tissue could at least in part explain postoperative intestinal dysmotility.
Dragusin, M; Wehner, S; Kelly, S; Wang, E; Merrill, AH; Kalff, JC; van Echten-Deckert, G
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