Long-chain (sphingoid) bases inhibit multistage carcinogenesis in mouse C3H/10T1/2 cells treated with radiation and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate.
Sphingosine and other long-chain (sphingoid) bases inhibit protein kinase C, the putative cellular receptor for the tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and exert potent effects on diverse cell functions. We tested the ability of long-chain bases to modulate multistage carcinogenesis in mouse C3H/10T1/2 cells exposed to gamma-rays and PMA. Sphingosine and sphinganine completely blocked the enhancement of radiation-induced transformation by PMA (promotion) and partially suppressed transformation by radiation alone. N-Acetylsphingosine, a ceramide analog, did not inhibit transformation. Sphingosine was rapidly taken up by the cells and metabolized; hence, the long-chain bases were added daily to achieve prolonged inhibition. Long-chain bases inhibited protein kinase C activity in C3H/10T1/2 cells and suppressed the down-regulation of this enzyme by PMA. Our results establish that long-chain bases are highly effective inhibitors of carcinogenesis in this model. Our results also indicate that the suppressive effects may be mediated, in part, by inhibition of protein kinase C. The data suggest that sphingosine and other long-chain bases derived from complex sphingolipids may act as cancer-preventative agents.
Borek, C; Ong, A; Stevens, VL; Wang, E; Merrill, AH
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