Histiocytic sarcoma arising in indolent small B-cell lymphoma: report of two cases with molecular/genetic evidence suggestive of a 'transdifferentiation' during the clonal evolution.
The biologic relationship between small B-cell lymphoma and histiocytic sarcoma (HS) when occurring in the same patient remains unclear, though recent data suggest a possible 'transdifferentiation' from follicular lymphoma (FL) to HS. We investigated the clonal relationship in two cases of small B-cell lymphoma with subsequent HS. Case 1: A 62-year-old female with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) developed HS in a groin lymph node 1 year after the primary diagnosis. PCR/sequence analysis of the IGH gene showed a monoclonal rearrangement carrying an identical nucleotide sequence of PCR products from the spleen with SMZL and the lymph node with HS. Case 2: A 61-year-old female with a remote history of FL developed supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, which was confirmed to be HS. PCR analysis of the HS detected a monoclonal rearrangement of the IGH gene and FISH analysis revealed IGH/BCL2 fusion, a genetic hallmark for FL. The transformed HSs showed partial retention of their prior B-cell lymphomas' signatures, including expression of OCT2 in both cases and expression of BCL6 and enhanced expression of BCL2 in case 2. Both HSs demonstrated hypermutated IGH variable regions, arguing against a common progenitor mechanism of the transformation process. The data suggest a common clonal origin of B-cell lymphoma and subsequent HS occurring in the same patient, indicating that 'transdifferentiation' occurs in other small B-cell lymphomas, in addition to the previously reported FL or B-cell lymphoma with IGH/BCL2.
Wang, E; Hutchinson, CB; Huang, Q; Sebastian, S; Rehder, C; Kanaly, A; Moore, J; Datto, M
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