Evaluation of a sol-gel derived carbon composite electrode as an amperometric detector for capillary electrophoresis.
In this paper, we report the construction and application of a sol-gel derived carbon composite electrode (CCE) as an amperometric detector for capillary electrophoresis. The electrochemical properties were characterized and compared with those of conventional carbon fiber and carbon paste electrode (CPE). Experimental results show that peak-to-peak noise of CCE was about 20% of CPE and electrode capacitance was comparatively low. When applied to the detection of dopamine and epinephrine, the optimal detection potential for CCE was 0.1 V lower than CPE under the same separation conditions; CCE with diameter of 75 and 100 microm could achieve a low detection limit of 3 x 10(-8) and 6 x 10(-8) M for the detection of epinephrine, which approaching that of the 33-microm diameter carbon fiber electrode. Also, the linearity for epinephrine at CCE was more than two orders of magnitude, which was slightly wider than that of carbon fiber electrode. Applications to real sample analysis were tested by the determination of betahistine dihydrochloride in tablets and human urine. Using CCE with diameter < or = 100 microm as an amperometric detector after capillary electrophoresis separation, a low detection limit and a wide linear range combined with excellent reproducibility were obtained. This CCE possesses of many advantages, namely, convenience, ease of fabrication, low cost and high stability.
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